Physical Activity and Oxidative Stress - A Potential Role of L- Carnitine as an Antioxidant: A Review
Regular physical activity, along with a balanced diet, formsan important factor for the maintenance of good health. However, strenuousexerciseincreases the production of free radicals (FR) and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), leads to toxicity, resulting in chronic fatigue, injuries. The overproduction of RONS is involved in muscular fatigue, many diseases, and aging. However, FRs are essential for the functioning of the immune system and certain metabolic functions.The increase in oxidants compared to antioxidant leads to oxidative stress. Nowadays, antioxidants are supplemented to reduce muscle damage incurred during exercise, which has drawn the attention of the athletic population. L- Carnitine being ergogenic, acts as an antioxidant during recovery from exercise, thereby attenuate oxidative stress, which may then decrease exercise-induced muscle damage. Despite increasing research on antioxidant properties for carnitine in several pathologies such as diabetes, hypertension, renal, neurodegenerative conditions, and liver disease, less has been documented on it against oxidative stress induced by exercise. This review may help researchers who are interested in athletic performance enhancement and sports nutrition.
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